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四种植物提取物对菜粉蝶产卵行为的影响

2018/2/10 3:00:02
【摘要】   摘要:采用水蒸气蒸馏法分别提取艾蒿(Aremisia argyi)、凌霄(Campsis grandiflora)、紫茉莉(Mirabilis jalapa)、丁香(Syringa oblata)...

  摘要:采用水蒸气蒸馏法分别提取艾蒿(Aremisia argyi)、凌霄(Campsis grandiflora)、紫茉莉(Mirabilis jalapa)、丁香(Syringa oblata)的挥发性物质,通过室内试验研究提取物对菜粉蝶(Pieris rapae L.)产卵行为的影响。结果表明4种提取物对菜粉蝶具有产卵忌避作用,艾蒿对菜粉蝶的产卵忌避作用最强,平均忌避率为65.7%,其次是紫茉莉,凌霄和丁香的产卵忌避作用相对较弱;随着放置时间的延长,各处理忌避效果均逐渐减弱,处理后24 h的忌避作用最强。艾蒿和紫茉莉提取物对菜粉蝶产卵正反比影响相对较强,产卵正反比分别为29.7%和24.7%,凌霄和丁香提取物对菜粉蝶产卵正反比影响作用相对较弱,产卵正反比分别为12.3%和18.7%。

  关键词:艾蒿;凌霄;紫茉莉;丁香;提取物;菜粉蝶;产卵忌避作用
  中图分类号:Q965 文献标识码:A 文章编号:0439-8114(2012)14-2996-02
  Deterrent Effects of Four Kinds of Plants Extracts on Oviposition of Pieris rapae
  WU Li-min,LU Ning-hai,LI Wei-hai,WANG Guo-chang,CUI Jian-xin
  (Department of Plant Protection, College of Resources and Environment Science,Henan Institute of Science and Technology,
  Xinxiang 453003,Henan,China)
  Abstract: To evaluate the control effects of non-host plants on Pieris rapae L., bioassays were conducted to investigate the oviposition deterrent effects of 4 non-host plants such as argy wormwood(Artemisia argyi), Chinese trumpet creeper (Campsis grandiflora), marvel of Peru (Mirabilis jalapa), and clove(Syringa oblata) on the butterfly in laboratory. Indoor bioassay results showed that four kinds of plants extracts had oviposition deterrent effects on P. rapae. Oviposition deterrent activity of argy wormwood was strongest which the oviposition deterrent rate was 65.7%, followed by marvel of Peru, and that of Chinese trumpet creeper and clove were weaker. Deterrent activity of the four kinds of plant extracts was decreased with the time increased, and it was strongest at 24 h. Extracts of wormwood and marvel of peru had effect on oviposition sites of P. rapae, the average backs to front rates were 29.7% and 24.7% respectively. However Chinese trumpet creeper and clove extracts had weak effect on oviposition site of P. rapae, the average ovipositions back to front rates were 12.3% and 18.7% respectively.
  Key words: Aremisia argyi; Campsis grandiflora; Mirabilis jalapa; Syringa oblata; extracts; Pieris rapae L.; oviposition deterrent effect
  植物次生化合物对大多数植食性昆虫及其他一些生物有防御作用,能适应其中一个植物分类单元次生化合物的昆虫只是极少种类。凡是对昆虫有忌避或拒食作用的植物次生化合物,通常被叫做非嗜食植物次生物[1]。利用非嗜食植物次生物对害虫的忌避作用来控制害虫、保护作物免受害虫侵袭,是害虫生态控制研究中的重点[2,3]。在蔬菜害虫生态控制中,充分利用这些非嗜食植物次生物对菜田以外生境迁入害虫的忌避作用,可以达到降低虫源基数、增强控制害虫种群的效果[4,5]。近些年来我国广泛开展了植物源农业昆虫忌避剂、拒食剂、生长发育抑制剂等的研究[6-9],证明了一些植物精油对昆虫具有强烈的忌避和拒食作用[10]。
  菜粉蝶(Pieris rapae L.)为重要的蔬菜害虫,其幼虫又称菜青虫,嗜食十字花科植物,尤其偏好叶面光滑的甘蓝(花椰菜、球茎甘蓝等),在一些地区经常暴发成灾,必须人工干预,进行有针对性防治才能控制其危害。
  试验研究了艾蒿(Aremisia argyi)、凌霄(Campsis grandiflora)、紫茉莉(Mirabilis jalapa)、丁香(Syringa oblata)的水蒸气馏出液的二氯甲烷提取物对菜粉蝶在甘蓝上的产卵忌避作用和提取物对菜粉蝶产卵行为的影响,以期为建立菜粉蝶生态调控技术、开发菜粉蝶忌避剂提供科学依据。

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